Found during or before 1861
25° 45' S., 70° 30' W. approx.
The first of many large masses of this polymict, metalsilicate breccia was found by a prospector in Atacama, Chile, ~100 miles SE of Taltal. The discovery was first reported by the Chilean geologist Ignacy Domeyko in 1862, in a landscape described as vegetation-free, sand and gravel covered open plains, crossed by dry river beds. Possibly many tons of Vaca Muerta were found and subsequently broken apart by 19th century miners to retrieve the metal-rich portion for smelting.
In 1985, a mining engineering student named Edmundo Martinez explored the Atacama Desert region from which Vaca Muerta was originally found by miners a century earlier (Pedersen et al., 1992). Field work by Martinez and his associates led to the characterization of many sites in the strewn field and the recovery of both undisturbed and disturbed masses of this mesosiderite, in sizes of 13 g312 kg and 2 g850 kg, respectively. In addition, they found a large pile of Vaca Muerta igneous clasts discarded by 19th century miners who were seeking the more metal-rich stones for smelting. Almost 4,000 kg of this meteorite has been accounted for, while the pre-atmospheric mass is estimated to have been over 6,000 kg. Calculations indicate that the Vaca Muerta meteoroid had a pre-atmospheric diameter of ~100140 cm (Reedy et al., 1994). The extensive strewn field has dimensions of 11.5 × 2.1 km.
A two-stage irradiation history has been proposed for mesosiderites by Hidaka and Yoneda (2011). In the first stage, occurring <4.4 b.y. ago, the silicates were irradiated near the surface, prior to mesosiderite formation. Subsequent to differentiation of the mesosiderite parent body, a low velocity collision of a large (~50150 km diameter) iron projectile and a large (~200400 km diameter), still molten iron planetesimal occurred ~4.4 b.y. ago, melting and mixing the cool silicate layer of the planetesimal with the molten FeNi-metal of the projectile into complex breccias. The partial or total collisional disruption and gravitational reassembly of the target body is considered a strong likelihood by some (Haack et al., 1996). Others favor a scenario in which the molten metal that became mixed with cooler silicates was derived from the differentiated core of the mesosiderite planetesimal itself through a severe impact, without a catastrophic disruption and reassembly (Scott et al., 2001).
Based on in-depth mineralogical and textural studies of numerous samples of a massive >80 kg mesosiderite, portions of which having been described and classified by several independent labs (e.g., NWA 1817, 1827, 1878, 1879, 1882, 1912, 1951, 1979, 1982, 2042, 3055, 5312), Bunch et al. (2014) proposed an alternate petrogenetic history for the mesosiderites. Because they did not find any eucritic inclusions in any of the fragments from this very large mesosiderite, and the O- and Cr-isotopic compositions of the orthopyroxene and plagioclase in this mesosiderite are virtually identical to those of diogenites (see diagram below), they developed a scenario in which a small, previously cooled iron-rich asteroid collided with a still warm (~800°C), previously differentiated diogenitic asteroid at a low angle and relatively low velocity (<6 km/s). The frictional shear forces created in this oblique impact produced small rotating molten metal spherules which mechanically incorporated diogenite fragments, resulting in a minimally-shocked, fragmental stony-iron layer of debris.
Diagram credit: Bunch et al., 45th LPSC, #2554 (2014)
Each of these scenarios envision a brief period of rapid cooling due to the mixing of warm and cold material, followed by very slow cooling and annealing consistent with deep burial of the mesosiderite precursor material under an extensive debris blanket and/or subsequent lava flows. Other evolutionary stages considered to have occurred include reduction processes and episodic impact events, the latter resulting in re-melting, metalsilicate mixing and brecciation, formation of quench textures, mixing of deep silicates and near-surface silicates, regolith gardening, thermal metamorphism, and degassing which reset the ArAr age chronometer to reflect an age of ~3.63.9 b.y. Thereafter, the impact excavation and ejection from depth of the mesosiderite meteoroid (~138 m.y. ago for Vaca Muerta) initiated a second stage of irradiation (Bajo and Nagao, 2011).
Wang and Hsu (2019) used PbPb chronometry to date 53 merrillite crystals associated with FeNi-metal in the Youxi mesosiderite. Based on the low REE abundances in the Youxi merrillite compared to that in eucrites, they contend that it was formed by oxidation of P in metal during the metalsilicate mixing event rather than during magmatic activity. They derived an age of 3.950 (±0.080) b.y. which they consider represents the timing of merrillite development during the mesosiderite-forming event. Kouvatsis et al. (2022 #1248) obtained 207Pb206Pb isochron ages from phosphates in the mesosiderites Vaca Muerta, Hainholz, and Estherville. These isochrons established ages of 4.113 (±0.032), 4.005 (±0.079), and 3.969 (±0.280) b.y., respectively (see Vaca Muerta isochron diagram below).
Diagram credit: Kouvatsis et al., 53rd LPSC, #1248 (2022)
An equally plausible timing for the metalsilicate mixing event was adduced by Haba et al. (2019) using high-precision UPb dating of zircons in several mesosiderites. Based on these results they contend that the metalsilicate mixing event occurred 4.52539 (±0.00085) b.y. ago. They propose a scenario in which a hit-and-run collision disrupted the northern hemisphere of Vesta leading to ejecta debris reaccreting to the opposite, southern hemisphere (see schematic diagram below). The deeply buried mesosiderite meteorites were ejected into Earth-crossing orbits by later impacts.
Diagram credit: Haba et al., Nature Geoscience, vol. 12, #2, p. 512, (2019)
'Mesosiderite formation on asteroid 4 Vesta by a hit-and-run collision'
A severe impact scenario for mesosiderite formation was investigated by Sugiura et al. (2022) through the use of 3-D smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The models simulated a giant impact onto a differentiated body while varying its size, the extent of its core, mantle, and crust layers, and the impact angle and velocity. The impact resulted in the excavation and mixing of core and mantle materials, followed by their re-accretion and redistribution on the surface. Results were presented for two models having the following initial parameters:
Model 1: Impact at a 30° angle with a velocity of 3:25 km/sec onto a 540-km-diameter differentiated body with a core radius of 110 km, a mantle thickness of 120 km, and a crust thickness of 40 km. Impactor fragments are not accreted.
Model 2: Impact at a 40° angle with a velocity of 4.0 km/sec onto a 540-km-diameter differentiated body with a core radius of 140 km, a mantle thickness of 50 km, and a crust thickness of 80 km. Impactor fragments are not accreted.
Simulations using Model 1 parameters (e.g., a thin-crust, derived from magma ocean crystallization, and a thick mantle) resulted in the near disruption of the target body, with the resultant body reduced in mass by ≈50% and having a surface (i.e., to a depth of <20 km) composed in large part of mantle material with lesser abundances of reaccumulated core metal. This surface has a stony-iron composition that is pallasite-like, and this model could represent a plausible scenario for the subsequent impact ejection of pallasites. In simulations using Model 2 parameters (e.g., a comparatively thick crust and a large metal core), the resultant body was reduced to ≈70% of its initial mass having a surface composed primarily of original crust with small amounts of reaccumulated core metal, while mantle material was present only at the impact site. The major surface area of this body would be consistent with mesosiderite-like materials, and this model could represent a plausible scenario for the subsequent impact ejection of mesosiderites.
Snapshots of a Simulation of Mesosiderite FormationModel 2
click on image for a magnified view
Schematic illustration credit: Sugiura et al., Icarus, vol. 379, art. 114949 (2022, open accesslink)
'Giant Impact onto a Vesta-Like Asteroid and Formation of Mesosiderites through Mixing of Metallic Core and Surface Crust'
Mesosiderites of subgroup 1 have experienced the least thermal metamorphism and are more commonly richer in eucritic enclaves (Ikeda et al., 1990), some of which have escaped significant recrystallization. Vaca Muerta eucritic enclaves or clasts, also known as "eucritic pebbles", are mostly characterized as monogenic basalts with granular to gabbroic textures, composed primarily of silicate (9398 wt% as plagioclase and pigeonite) with minor amounts of tridymite (derived from both the primary eucritic material and through reduction processes sustained by phosphorus in FeNi-metal), phosphates, oxides, and various opaques. The major and trace element compositions of the Vaca Muerta clasts are most commonly similar to cumulate eucrites having a more magnesian composition (ilmenite-free; Mg# ≥0.47), whereas other mesosiderites might contain more ferroan clasts (ilmenite-bearing; Mg# ≤0.46) and show similarities to noncumulate eucrite, diogenite, and dunite material. The eucritic clasts were formed during the very early stages of magmatism on the mesosiderite parent body ~4.563 (±0.015) b.y. ago, representing both magmatic rocks (ilmenite-bearing) and cumulate and/or residual rocks (ilmenite-free). The significant petrographic differences that exist between these mesosiderite eucritic clasts and the HED meteorites may indicate they originated on separate parent bodies.
Both the Vaca Muerta eucritic clasts (see below and right photo above) and the metallic melt host phase (left photo above) have CRE ages based on ClAr and SmGd of 138 (±11) m.y., which reflects only irradiation received during transit to Earth (Albrecht et al., 2000; Hidaka and Yoneda, 2011). The eucritic pebbles have an additional KrKr-based cosmogenic age of >60 m.y., which reflects the additional exposure received by the precursor material during residence at shallow depth on the parent asteroid prior to impact ejection. Studies of cosmogenic 131Xe that was produced while the meteoroid was in transit to Earth indicates that the progenitor of Vaca Muerta had been located deep within the source object (Bajo et al., 2011). In addition, rare examples (06 vol%; Prinz et al., 1980) of large, coarse-grained, magnesian olivine (dunite) clasts (see bottom photo below) have been found in Vaca Muerta and some other mesosiderites, but it is still unresolved whether they represent higher-level cumulates or mantle material (Greenwood et al., 2015).
Mandler and Elkins-Tanton (2013) proposed a formation scenario for such dunites that involves a two-stage crystallization process: first, an equilibrium crystallization process from the late-stage liquid after 6070% solidification of the global magma ocean; second, a fractional crystallization process within an ascended, high-level (crustal) pluton composed of the former extracted residual melt, ultimately resulting in the formation of a thin lower-crustal dunite layer along with more shallow olivine diogenite, diogenite, and cumulate eucrite lithologies. On the other hand, if the dunitic clasts are actually derived from mantle material, a scenario is required to explain how such material was incorporated into the regolith. However, it was argued by Barrat and Yamaguchi (2014) that magma chamber processes are unable to explain the chemical diversity of the diogenites (e.g., the range of heavy-REE ratios in diogenitic orthopyroxenes), and that neither assimilation of wallrock nor incorporation of a trapped melt component can account for this diversity. They contend that the diversity is more likely the result of variability in the respective initial parental melt compositions.
The diverse suite of silicate clasts (e.g., basalts, gabbros, orthopyroxenites, dunites) present in Vaca Muerta and other mesosiderites have O-isotopes consistent with an origin on the mesosiderite parent body rather than a xenolithic origin (Greenwood et al., 2009, 2013, 2015). Because mesosiderites have isotopic signatures (e.g., 17O, 54Cr, and 50Ti [Rüfenacht et al., 2018]) that are virtually identical to the HED clan meteorites, many investigators consider that mesosiderites originated on the HED parent body, or at least within similar nebular reservoirs (see diagrams below).
click on image for a magnified view
Diagram credit: Greenwood et al., 2017
For an explanation of the diagram components see the open accessarticle in Chemie der ErdeGeochemistry, vol. 77, p. 25 (2017)
'Melting and differentiation of early-formed asteroids: The perspective from high precision oxygen isotope studies'
Diagram credit: Wasson and Göpel, 77th MetSoc, #5446 (2014)
However, studies of the Eu/Sm systematics suggest that the HED clan meteorites and the mesosiderites did not originate on a common parent body. The silicates in mesosiderites have a Eu/Sm ratio higher than CI and so exhibit a positive Eu anomaly, while the howardites of the HED clan have a Eu/Sm ratio less than CI and show a negative Eu anomaly. Further evidence supporting separate parent bodies rather than distinct regions on a common parent body includes the fact that the CRE ages are not correlated; most howardites fall into two clusters of ~21 and ~38 m.y., while the mesosiderites have widely ranging ages from <10 to 340 m.y. Moreover, in contrast to the mesosiderite parent body, the HED parent body shows no evidence of a crustal melting episode, or a metalsilicate mixing event (Rubin and Mittlefehldt, 1993). In accord with this viewpoint, it was shown by D. Mittlefehldt (2014) that mesosiderites contain basaltic clasts that have a wide range of anomalous characteristics, while howardites do not. He cited these anomalies as evidence for the fact that clast formation succeeded metalsilicate mixing on the parent body, and also noted that petrologic data are indicative of clast formation preceding impact gardening. Therefore, the apparent lack of such anomalies in components of howardites is inconsistent with a common parent body for both HED and mesosiderite meteorites. In addition, multiple line of evidence were presented by D. Mittlefehldt (2021) supporting separate parent bodies for mesosiderites and the HED meteorites, including petrological (e.g., modal, textural, and redox data), compositional (e.g., incompatible lithophile trace elements), and observational (Dawn at Vesta). In another study of the highly siderophile element (HSE) contents of mesosiderites, Xu et al. (2011) found that the HSE patterns are very similar to those in FeNi-metal from H-group chondrites, and they suggest a genetic link might exist there.
The ~226-km-diameter M-type asteroid, (16) Psyche, has been considered by some to be the mesosiderite parent body. The visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of Psyche indicate a surface composed of metal and pyroxene consistent with mesosiderites. A study of Psyche conducted by Viikinkoski et al. (2018) has determined that its density (3.99 [±0.26] g/cm3) is a good match to values calculated by Britt and Consolmagno (2003) for both mesosiderites (~4.25 g/cm3) and the stony-iron Steinbach (~4.1 g/cm3), but is inconsistent with that of iron meteorites (~7.8 g/cm3).
A recent detailed spectroscopic survey of main-belt and near-Earth asteroids has identified certain differentiated asteroids having high concentrations of high-Ca pyroxene, abundant plagioclase, minor olivine, and a significant metal component. These asteroids, including the S-type asteroids (17) Thetis and members of the Merxia and Agnia families, may be similar to the metalpyroxene-rich mesosiderites (Sunshine et al., 2004). In a similar way, utilizing near-IR spectrography of asteroids located near the border of the 3:1 orbital resonance located at 2.50 AU (a Kirkwood Gap associated with Jupiter), Fieber-Beyer et al. (2010, 2011) found that close similarities exist in the absorption spectra of eleven members (out of twelve members studied) of the Maria asteroid family (total of ~80 members) and the absorption spectra obtained for mesosiderites. The Maria family, which is likely the result of collisional disruption, contains HED-type pyroxenes and exhibits spectral reddening likely caused by FeNi-metal. Fieber-Beyer et al. (2011) ascertained that the near-Earth asteroid 1036 Ganymed is mineralogically similar to diogenites, with pyroxenes identical to those in Johnstown, and they also determined that the spectra of the asteroid is consistent with asteroids from the Maria family. Dynamical models of the Maria family predict that it is a probable source of some or all mesosiderites delivered to Earth (see diagram below).
Diagram credit: Fieber-Beyer et al., Icarus, vol. 213, #2, p. 534, (2011)
'The Maria asteroid family: Genetic relationships and a plausible source of mesosiderites near the 3:1 Kirkwood Gap'
Based on silicate matrix textures, Vaca Muerta has been placed into group A1. (see the Bondoc page for further information about the mesosiderite grouping scheme). It is theorized by one investigative team that Vesta and the Vestoids, along with the isotopically similar mesosiderites and IIAB irons, were themselves the products of a catastrophic breakup of an even larger parent object which they have named 'Opis' (Irving et al., 2009). In Greek mythology, Opis was the wife of Saturn, whose children were Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Juno, Ceres, and Vesta.
A terrestrial age of <2000 years was calculated for Vaca Muerta (Jull et al., 2009). The left photo above shows a 9.1 g end section of a metallic-melt host phase of Vaca Muerta, while the right shows a 51.6 g end section of a naturally faceted, eucritic inclusion likely formed from a localized impact melt of an existing cumulate eucrite lithology (photos not shown to the same scale).